Junkers, Hugo

Junkers, Hugo
SUBJECT AREA: Aerospace
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b. 3 February 1859 Rheydt, Germany
d. 3 February 1935 Munich, Germany
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German aircraft designer, pioneer of all-metal aircraft, including the world's first real airliner.
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Hugo Junkers trained as an engineer and in 1895 founded the Junkers Company, which manufactured metal products including gas-powered hot-water heaters. He was also Professor of Thermodynamics at the high school in Aachen. The visits to Europe by the Wright brothers in 1908 and 1909 aroused his interest in flight, and in 1910 he was granted a patent for a flying wing, i.e. no fuselage and a thick wing which did not require external bracing wires. Using his sheet-metal experience he built the more conventional Junkers J 1 entirely of iron and steel. It made its first flight in December 1915 but was rather heavy and slow, so Junkers turned to the newly available aluminium alloys and built the J 4 bi-plane, which entered service in 1917. To stiffen the thin aluminium-alloy skins, Junkers used corrugations running fore and aft, a feature of his aircraft for the next twenty years. Incidentally, in 1917 the German authorities persuaded Junkers and Fokker to merge, but the Junkers-Fokker Company was short-lived.
After the First World War Junkers very rapidly converted to commercial aviation, and in 1919 he produced a single-engined low-wing monoplane capable of carrying four passengers in an enclosed cabin. The robust all-metal F 13 is generally accepted as being the world's first airliner and over three hundred were built and used worldwide: some were still in service eighteen years later. A series of low-wing transport aircraft followed, of which the best known is the Ju 52. The original version had a single engine and first flew in 1930; a three-engined version flew in 1932 and was known as the Ju 52/3m. This was used by many airlines and served with the Luftwaffe throughout the Second World War, with almost five thousand being built.
Junkers was always ready to try new ideas, such as a flap set aft of the trailing edge of the wing that became known as the "Junkers flap". In 1923 he founded a company to design and manufacture stationary diesel engines and aircraft petrol engines. Work commenced on a diesel aero-engine: this flew in 1929 and a successful range of engines followed later. Probably the most spectacular of Junkers's designs was his G 38 airliner of 1929. This was the world's largest land-plane at the time, with a wing span of 44 m (144 ft). The wing was so thick that some of the thirty-four passengers could sit in the wing and look out through windows in the leading edge. Two were built and were frequently seen on European routes.
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Bibliography
1923, "Metal aircraft construction", Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society, London.
Further Reading
G.Schmitt, 1988, Hugh Junkers and His Aircraft, Berlin.
1990, Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War I, London: Jane's (provides details of Junkers's aircraft).
J.Stroud, 1966, European Transport Aircraft since 1910, London.
P. St J.Turner and H.J.Nowarra, 1971, Junkers: An Aircraft Album, London.
JDS

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

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  • Junkers, Hugo — ▪ German aircraft designer born Feb. 3, 1859, Rheydt, Prussia [Germany] died Feb. 3, 1935, Gauting, near Munich, Ger.       German aircraft designer and early proponent of the monoplane and all metal construction of aircraft.       Junkers… …   Universalium

  • Junkers, Hugo — ► (1859 1935) Ingeniero alemán. Constructor de aviones. Inventó el motor Junkers de aceite pesado para aviones. En 1910 construyó los J 1, primeros monoplanos totalmente metálicos (1915), y los F 13 …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Junkers,Hugo — Jun·kers (yo͝ongʹkərz, kərs), Hugo. 1859 1935. German aircraft engineer who designed the first successful all metal airplane (1915) and helped establish early mail and passenger airlines. * * * …   Universalium

  • Junkers — Junkers, Hugo …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Junkers & Co. — Junkers Logo Die Firma Junkers Co. Warmwasser Apparatefabrik wurde 1895 von Hugo Junkers in Dessau gegründet. Junkers Gasgeräte wie Badeöfen, Heizgeräte und andere Erfindungen des Gründers wurden in der Firma produziert. Die Marke Junkers gehört… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Junkers — Co was a major German aircraft manufacturer. It produced some of the world s most innovative and well known airplanes over the course of its fifty plus year history in Dessau, Germany. It was founded there in 1895 by Hugo Junkers, initially… …   Wikipedia

  • Junkers F.13 — Junkers F 13 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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